Film Studies Essays Film or Book Which is better the film or the book? The debate over the superiority of literature over film or vice versa seems to rear its head every time a major piece of literary work is adapted. Even unbridled success stories such as Peter Jacksonâ€™s Lord of the Rings trilogy have dissident voices unhappy with his changes and omissions. However changes and omissions are absolutely necessary when adapting hundreds of pages of prose into a couple of hours of film. This essay will look at how narrative is adapted and retold in two films; Mrs Dalloway (Marleen Gorris, 1997) and The Color Purple. (Steven Spielberg, 1985) Mrs Dalloway is not a conventionally narrated novel. Over the course of a day it follows the eponymous protagonist through her preparations to host a party and how the unexpected arrival of am old suitor makes her reminisce about her youth.Â At the same time we see how Mrs Dalloway and her associates lives intersect with that of a shell-shocked solider. What is produced is a type of mosaic narrative, which is then left for the reader to interpret and discern meaning. In the beginning of the film as she walks about London on her way to collect the flowers for her party we are allowed to view moments of her youth in flashback. These flashbacks are generally triggered by something in the present. For example a meeting with Hugh reminds her of how Peter Walsh â€˜never to this day forgiven her for liking him.â€™ (Woolf, p 8) These are transitioned in and out of aurally, as she hears voices of people she knew in her head and the visual waits a beat before transitioning back as well. This replicates the mosaic narrative style of the book. There is however one major difference between the beginning of the book and the beginning of the film. The character of Septimus (Rupert Graves) is much more quickly established as a major character within the film. In the book he is introduced as a car backfires and he is shocked rigid by it although no immediate reason is given why. Over the course of the novel we learn more about his experiences at war and the lasting effect upon him. Mrs Dalloway and Septimus never meet in the novel, yet we are led to discern they are connected thematically through the mosaic narrative. The Film version of Mrs Dalloway opens with a brief sequence of Septimus (Rupert Graves) in the trenches of world war one.Â The shot is thick with smoke and is filmed in slow motion to give the sense of a dream sequence although the title Italy 1918 suggests that this is a flashback. The camera slowly zooms into Septimus face singling him out as the protagonist of this sequence. We see his reaction to a friend being blown up by an explosion and as he sinks into despair the smoke fills the screen fading it to white and softening focus. This soft white backdrop then becomes the drapes in the bedroom of Mrs. Dalloway (Vanessa Redgrave).Â Â Â These two environments could not be more different; however the transition is not jarring or unsettling; we are taken from the horror trenches into the gentile and elegant world of a Whitehall socialite with the greatest of ease. The transition leaves the viewer with the impression that the two peopleâ€™s lives are somehow connected, but perhaps is not as subtle and gently persuasive as the book. The Color Purple tells the story of a young black woman in the Deep South. It is about the oppression and abuse she suffers in a racist sexist world and the bonds of friendship she finds with other women. The climactic emotional moment of the novel is the sequence ion which Celia tells her husband that she is leaving him and moving to Memphis. The dialogue form the scene in the film is taken almost word for word from the book. It is a moment of great personal emancipation for Celia, and a moment of fantastic performance from the unusually restrained Whoopi Goldberg. She has been abused and sub-serviant all her life and she finally has enough sense of self worth to speak up load and powerfully. â€œYouâ€™re a lowdown dog is whatâ€™s wrong, I say. Itâ€™s time to leave you and enter into the creation.â€ (Walker, p180) First of all the scene is set in Mr.____â€™s (Danny Glover) House as opposed to Harpoâ€™s (Willard Pugh) in the book; this is significant because it has been Celiaâ€™s prison for several years; a place where she has been continuously abused. This adds extra dramatic tension to the scene and focuses it on Celia. However this does to some extent detract from the arcs of the other characters such as Squeak (Rea Dawn Chong) and Sofia. (Oprah Winfrey) In the novel there are continuous references to Squeak being Harpoâ€™s mistress and mother of his child. This is less prominent in the film and as such leaves Squeaks departure with much less dramatic weight. Also the film omits the visit of Eleanor Jane and reference to Sofiaâ€™s probation. In the novel Sofia is denied her emancipation by the legalities she is still embroiled with, the film instead reinstates Sofia as a dominant force at the dinner table. What is clear from this scene is that although as the stories protagonist Celiaâ€™s narrative arc has remained intact, omissions have had to have been made on behalf of other characters within the novel due to the narrative constraints of time. Film can strive to imitate the stylistic form of literature successfully as in the case of Mrs Dalloway or unsuccessfully as in the case of The Bonfire of the Vanities (De Palma, 1990) In certain cases such as The Godfather (Coppola 1972) and Jaws (Spielberg 1975) the film adaptation can surpass the source material. Although argument other which form is better may be mere sound and fury; direct comparison of the two different narrative forms can lead to a better understanding of narration itself. Bibliography Bordwell and Thompson. (2001) Film Art: An Introduction, New York: McGraw Hill. Kawin, B (1992) How Movies Work, London: University of California press. Thompson, K (1999) Storytelling in the New Hollywood: Understanding classical Narrative Technique. London: Harvard Walker, A (2004) The Color Prurple, London: Pheonix. Woolf, V (1996) Mrs Dalloway, London: Penguin popular classics. Filmography Bonfire of the Vanities (Dir Brian De Palma, 1990, US) Color Purple, The (Dir Steven Spielberg, 1985 US) Godfather, The (Dir Francis Ford Coppola, 1972, US) Jaws (Dir Steven Spielberg, 1975, US) Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, The (Dir Peter Jackson, 2002, US, New Zealand, Germany) Mrs. Dalloway (Dir Marleen Gorris, 1997, UK)
This makes ADHD a major health concern. Up to 60% of these children will continue to have symptoms into adulthood. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than a million children take prescription medicines to control hyperactive behavior. The estimated cost to schools is about 3 billion dollars. There are other ways of treating ADHD and throughout this study we will discuss how to treat ADHD as well as explore how ADHD affects youth. ADHD is not only over diagnosed, but it is often mis-diagnosed, according to a recent study out of Germany.
According to this research, many child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists in Germany have a picture in their heads of what an â€œAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder â€œchild or teen looks like, or acts like, and then a child or teen that fits that picture gets the diagnosis. In this process actual diagnostic criterion takes a back seat to â€œexperienceâ€ or â€œheuristics. â€ But does this mean that ADHD is being â€œover diagnosedâ€ because of poor diagnostic criteria, or due to poor diagnostic tools? No. Rather the problem is in the lack of using either diagnostic criteria or diagnostic tools.
The reason for â€œover diagnosisâ€ of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is sloppy diagnostic workups by these professionals. But the study was a little sloppy too. It draws â€œreal worldâ€ conclusions from â€œpretendâ€ or â€œtheoreticalâ€ situations. No one examined actual patients or even their charts. So how do they know that in the â€œreal worldâ€ that ADHD is being over diagnosed? The answer is that they donâ€™t. But they do have a better understanding of the process that busy professionals use in interpreting â€œcase vignettesâ€ that may or may not be Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Abdekhodaie, April 2012) Introduction The main focus of this paper will be to examine ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and how it affects kids? I will also be exploring the cause of ADHD and what can be done to control this disorder without the use of medication. I predict that ADHD affects kids both mentally and physically. Mood swings are an emotional side effect of ADHD, affecting those of all ages with the condition. This symptom may prove hard to pinpoint, as changes in moods may also relate to stress or tense life situations, such as a divorce, moves and changes in school or jobs.
Impulsivity is an emotional side effect of ADHD, which may cause individuals to become impatient and react inappropriately. Children with ADHD may receive discipline in school for blurting out comments and displaying seemingly rude behaviors. Anger is a normal human behavior. Individuals with ADHD, however, may have more trouble focusing on tasks and dealing with stress, which may cause frustration and heighten anger. (Martinez M, 2008) I predict that ADHD is not a result of bad parenting Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of â€œbad parentingâ€ or obnoxious, willful defiance on the part of the child.
Yes, a child may be willfully defiant whether he has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or not. Defiance, rebelliousness, and selfishness are more often â€œmoralâ€ issues than neurological issues. We make no excuses for â€œimmoral,â€ â€œselfish,â€ or â€œdestructiveâ€ behaviors, whether from individuals with ADD ADHD or not. It may be true that the child or teenâ€™s parents may need further or more in-depth training on parenting defiant children. We are constantly amazed at how many young parents today themselves grew up in homes where their own parents were gone all day.
We now see â€œgrown up latch key kidsâ€ trying to parent as best as they can, but without having had the benefit of growing up with good parental role models. This is a problem that can be solved with some training. But it is not Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD (Dawson, Catherine, 2002) I predict that ADHD can be controlled without medicine. If you or your children are struggling with ADHD, you need to understand that no matter how effective your medical treatment intervention might be, if you or your child is eating a bunch of junk â€“ your symptoms from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder will not improve!
No treatment â€“ no matter how powerful â€“ can overcome eating junk foods. We have found that this ADHD Diet makes a huge difference with about 20% to 25% of those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder that try it even without using any other intervention. We strongly believe that whether one is using a medication such as Ritalin, or using a natural alternative such as Attend, that this type of eating program plays a big role in achieving success when used as a part of a treatment plan. Mentally
Families considering treatment options should consult a qualified mental health professional for a complete review of their childâ€™s behavioral issues and a treatment plan. Children with ADHD are often more emotionally immature than their non-ADHD counterparts. This can be very pronounced, with children being several years below the emotional level of their classmates or slight, with just a small difference noted. ADHD can often cause problems in social situations, diagnosed children may have a hard time making friends or relating to other children the same age.
In addition to emotional immaturity, self-esteem can be an issue. A child with ADHD may feel â€œdifferentâ€ or isolated, creating a low self-esteem. Emotional disorders, such as depression, anxiety or bipolar are also common in people with ADHD. These problems are persistent and usually cause difficulties in one or more major life areas: home, school, work, or social relationships. Clinicians base their diagnosis on the presence of the core characteristics and the problems they cause. Not all children and youth have the same type of ADHD because the disorder varies among individuals.
Some may be hyperactive. Others may be under-active. Physically Methylphenidate, more commonly known as Ritalin, can be used as part of a treatment program for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. According to Medline Plus, Ritalin is a central nervous system stimulant and acts to change certain substances in the brain. Before you agree to give your child Ritalin, you should know how Ritalin affects physical development in children. As a stimulant, Ritalin can have an effect on the physical development of children.
According to MayoClinic. com, stimulant medications may be associated with a lower growth rate in children. This growth slowing pertains to both a childâ€™s height and weight. One common side effect of Ritalin is a loss of appetite, and this can even lead to weight loss while on the drug. According to Novartis, the manufacturer of Ritalin, children who take Ritalin seven days a week throughout the year showed a temporary slowing of growth. This growth did not rebound while on the drug, and was consistent throughout the three year period studied. Non-medical Control
Studies show that a high-protein, low-sugar, no-additive diet combined with ADHD-friendly supplements like fish oil and zinc can drastically improve ADHD symptoms in children with no side effects. Good nutrition can make a significant difference in the lives of children who have been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD). Many parents are eager to try foods and supplements to help their kids manage ADHD symptoms, but they often donâ€™t know where to start. I have identified and addressed the concern. A concern is identified for which there is no ready answer.
The concern has arisen because of an interest, and has been present for a long time. This is now a research problem. Every person can be a bit absent-minded, restless, fidgety, or impulsive. So why these same patterns of behavior are considered normal for some people and symptoms of a disorder in others? Itâ€™s partly a matter of degree. With ADHD, these behaviors occur far more than occasionally. They are the rule and not the exception. Unless a child understands his or her intellectual strengths and understands the potentially negative impacts of the ADHD, they may be confused by their inability to sustain success.
Self-understanding (often aided by counseling) goes a long way in helping a person with this unique combination of traits and talents attain his or her fullest potential. Review of Related Literature (Background) Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the 4,186 eligible families, 1,012 (24. 2%) are successfully recruited.
A telephone interview is administered to all families about a child in the 6 to 12 age range. It covered family living situation, school performance, symptoms of ADHD, conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), and other features of ADHD. Results: The prevalence of ADHD in France is between 3. 5% and 5. 6%. The population prevalence of treatment for ADHD is 3. 5%. ADHD youth are more likely to be men than women, and, compared to non-ADHD children, ADHD children are more likely to have CD and ODD. Having ADHD is associated with a family history of the disorder.
The ADHD youth are more likely to have had learning difficulties, to have repeated a grade, and to be functioning academically below grade level. (Lecendreux, August 2011) Father residency appears to share some relationship with symptoms of ADHD, but when symptoms reach the level for a clinical diagnosis, father residency appears to share little relationship with severity of symptoms of ADHD. (Sulak, 2012) The results of pair wise comparisons showed that children with a family history of ADHD performed significantly worse than those without family history in the time production tasks and the time reproduction task.
Logistic regression analysis showed duration discrimination had a significant role in predicting whether the children were suffering from ADHD or not, while temporal processing had a significant role in predicting whether the ADHD children had a family history or not. (Huang, 2012) Methodology (Methods) Outline for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and how it affects kids? Research Process: 1. Formulating the Research Problem is the first and most crucial step in the research process. â€“ Main function is to decide what you want to find out about. The way the problem is formulated determines almost every step after. Research in this study revolves around People and Problems: â€¢ People- a group of individuals â€¢ Problems- examine the existence of certain issues or problems relating to their lives; to ascertain attitude of a group of people towards ADHD 2. Extensive Literature Review: -Essential preliminary task in order to acquaint myself with the available body of knowledge in ADHD and how it affects kids. -Literature review is integral part of entire research process and makes valuable contribution to every operational step. Reviewing literature through the following functions: a. Bringing clarity and focus to the research problem; b. Improved methodology; c. Broaden my knowledge of ADHD; d. Contextualize my findings. 3. Developing the objectives; -Objectives are the goals I set out to attain in this study. -They inform a reader what is to be attained through the study. -It is extremely important to word them clearly and specifically. Objectives will be listed under two headings: a) Main objectives; b) Sub-objectives. 4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design;
The preparation of research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves the consideration of the following: 1. Objectives of the research study. 2. Method of Data Collection to be adopted 3. Source of informationâ€”Sample Design 4. Tool for Data collection 5. Data Analysisâ€“ qualitative and quantitative 5. Collecting the Data; Having formulated the research problem, developed the study design, constructed a research instrument and selected a sample, now I will collect the data from which inferences and conclusions for the study will be drawn. Then I will conduct interviews, research journals, and make observations. 6.
Analysis of Data; Processing and analyzing data involves a number of closely related operations which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing these in a manner that they answer the research objectives. The Data Processing operations are: 1. Editing- examine the collected raw data to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible. 2. Classification- arranges data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. 7. Generalization and Interpretation; It is useful in both academic reports and work-related reports to include a section which shows how the research can be continued.
It is useful to include this section because it shows that you are aware of the wider picture and that you are not trying to cover up something which you feel may be lacking in your own work. 8. Preparation of the Report of Formal write ups of conclusions reached. Include in your discussion how you will determine the validity and reliability of data collection tools. (Creswell, J. W. (2005). ) Validity is essential in research data. The data must be, in fact, what they are believed or purported to be. In other words, did we actually measure what we intended to measure, based on the focus of our ADHD and its affect on children?
Validity of data obtained from the administration of tests (quantitative data) has been determined through examining various sources of evidence. (Mertler, C. ;amp; Charles, C. 2011. ) Reliability, a second essential characteristic of data, refers not to authenticity but to consistency. If you administer a certain test repeatedly under identical circumstances but find that you get different results each time, you would conclude that the test is unreliable. If, however, you get similar results each time you administer the test, you would consider the results reliable and therefore potentially useful.
In this research we conclude that our results are reliable and therefore potentially useful. (Mertler, C. ;amp; Charles, C. 2011. ) Conclusions and Recommendations The current study aimed to investigate Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its affect on children grades k through 6. ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. It covers how to manage ADHD with medication or without, what parents can do to help, and how to thrive with ADHD throughout the lifespan. It also offers effective academic and behavioral interventions for school, and helpful accommodations for the workplace.
After several interviews with teachers currently dealing with students that have been diagnosed with ADHD, all agreed that most cases are mis-diagnosed and those students are placed on medicine without further examination. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of â€œbad parentingâ€ or obnoxious, willful defiance on the part of the child. It is my recommendation that there be a more structured procedure that will not allow a child to be diagnosed with this disorder without additional psychiatric treatment. References Martinez M, et al. Psychopharmacology. In: Hales RE. Textbook of Psychiatry.
Arlington, Va. : American Psychiatric Publishing; 2008. Plizska S. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2007; 46:894. Abdekhodaie, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Gholizadeh, Mortaza,â€The Investigation of ADHD Prevalence in Kindergarten Children in Northeast Iran and a Determination of the Criterion Validity of Connersâ€™ Questionnaire via Clinical Interviewâ€, Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v33 n2 p357-361 Mar-Apr 2012 Booster, Genery D. DuPaul, George J. ; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J. , â€œFunctional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Statusâ€ Journal of Attention Disorders, v16 n3 p179-189 Apr 2012 Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia, â€œIs ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Over diagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosisâ€ Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v80 n1 p128-138 Feb 2012 Creswell, J.
12/5/2019 0 Comments
Canadas Health Policy - Essay Example
The Chapter discusses how social structure and healthcare policy correlate. How is the correlation of social structure and health Socioeconomical factors are deterrent of health. There is no question that income levels have direct link to health. For example, social classes of higher income are more likely to report their health as good. Those below the poverty level are more likely to address their health as poor.
How does socioeconomical status affect people psychologically, physically, and emotionally These variables are referred to as stressors. Stressors are interconnected with the bodies physiological results its common knowledge that high levels of emotional issues are heavy influence on common diseases such as respritory illnesses and even worse illnesses. The example given in this chapter done by Kiecolt-Glaser, Malarkey, Cacioppo on page 169 discusses how abusive relationships between married man and women lead to decreased levels of proved decreased levels of health protecting hormones. This decrease was much more promanate with women then with men.
The Social Gradient discussed on page 164 and beyond details into deeper theory into how social class influences health. This distribution of inequality of classes within a country has different healthcare reactions due to the actual country. Comparative examples of how social status affects countries would be alcohol related deaths in France, coronary diseases in Great Britain. Easily states, different illnesses in different countries.
The Social Gradient is indirect support of the main theme of SES. Human's relative position in society is a factor but not as stated further into the chapter. Stressors have a larger impact of an individual's health. However, it's a well knows fact that higher income levels are more likely to care better and seek better levels of care.
This Chapter addresses the basic fundamentals that create the demographic data needed in shaping Canada's Healthcare Policy. Economists value the state of the economy, culture, and distribution of wealth among the country when deciding in care coverage and reimbursements. How are the needs of the citizens distributed across the country This is just a surface scratch of how the Canadian government formulates and controls healthcare and provides access to all its citizens.
Socio-economoical class fits inside both Interpretivist and Positivist Approach. If the premise for Interpretivist is the truth is experienced, then social experience needs to be witnessed first hand and the voices of the people of the community must take a very active role in forming health policy. Positivist Approach asks the questions how truth and facts. This is the scientific and analytic approach based on empirical evidence. Demographic Data can be collected, analyzed, trended and statistically manipulated in order to conclude on such ideals as income levels influence heart attacks.
How does the status of social groups form healthcare policy The different groups address the different needs of patient population throughout the country. Do these groups require different levels of care and coverage The current healthcare policy as a universal policy promotes equality among the social classes. Many classes in society have the same basic needs
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.